Acacia arabica is a fast-growing, medium-sized, evergreen tree with a rounded crown and sharp spines. The trunk has dark red-brown with resin often exuding from wounds. Leaves are small, pinnate, dull green in color, with spines at their base. Flowers are golden yellow, fragrant, in globe heads. The flowering period is from winter through spring.
The fruit is a whitish pod, tomentose, pendent and slightly curved. Its wood was used by ancient Egyptians to make statues and furniture. The species can withstand extremely dry environments and can also endure floods.